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"... an element common to most twentieth-century totalitarianisms, whether Fascist or Stalinist, was hostility toward the Left ... Indeed, a crucial feature of all totalitarian systems is that they were preceded by a pronounced shift in political dynamics from left to right. ... Accordingly, the elimination of the Left became a key objective of Fascist strategies. That strategy was complemented by campaigns to stoke, then reinforce, mass emotions of nationalism and patriotism, and to accuse the Left of being 'soft' and 'unpatriotic'" (Wolin 217).

Mann, Michael. Fascists. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Wolin, Sheldon S. Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton, NJ:
          Princeton University Press, 2017.

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